Starting from a shared awareness to do “mutual repentance”, we conducted this research. Socioeconomic and agrarian perspectives have their limits, so do spatial and investigative perspectives, although both have their respective advantages. Then, Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) activists invited Sajogyo Institute to collaborate on a joint action, ‘gang up’ to do real things for the people of Papua (native Papuans) and the nature. The argument is simple yet basic, the last natural forest in the Indonesian archipelago is in the land of Papua. Large capital expansion in the plantation (oil palm), mining, forestry, fisheries and marine sectors simultaneously shifted from Kalimantan and Sumatra to Papua. It is creating a variety of acute and massive social-ecological crisis in a multidimensional way for the life of the native Papuans. Followed by increased rates of deforestation, criminalization, exclusion, marginalization, human rights violations, and a variety of ecological damage that is increasingly prominent from the land of Papua.

In the next discussions, there is another limit that has been realized, which is the difficulty to limit the scope of the study only in Papua and West Papua. It is because the destructive power that reaches the Papua islands includes land, sea, mountains, valleys, hills, savannahs, and so on. Then, the term of “Bioregion of Papua” for the development of space appears. The Aru Islands with all their socialecological diversity are part of the study area. It is not only the awareness of the extent destructive power of the expansion of capital and extractive industries that are considered to choose Papua Bioregion, but also the methodological awareness that the administrative based way of looking at social-ecological crisis in the region is increasingly insufficient. The landscape that is the “living space” of native Papuans is also an administrative ‘cross border’ space between villages, districts, regencies, and even provinces. The reason is the “political boundaries of the state administration” are present later, while the traditional spatial layout has been around for a long time. It cannot be turned upside down.

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