Independent Indonesia, Dualism of Puncak Area Policy, Roots of Drought
Having 73 years of Indonesia’s independence, the upstream management of the Ciliwung watershed is still stagnant. The dry season since April has threatened the existence of the community in the Puncak area, which is part of the Upper Ciliwung Watershed (DAS). People who have been using surface water to meet their daily needs had to replace it with groundwater. The decreasing forest and land cover in the Puncak area was considered as the root cause.
The drought in Bogor is indicated by a decreasing water level (TMA) in the Ciliwung River. The data collected from the monitoring activity of the Katulampa Dam from May to August 2018 shows the lowest point, which is 0 cm. It means that the flow of water that enters the Ciliwung River is 0 liters per second (ecosystem needs), while that which enters the irrigation channel is only 3.460 liters per second (agricultural and other needs). The condition shows that the environmental carrying capacity of the upstream Ciliwung DAS is no longer able to protect the areas downstream, especially in terms of providing water sources.
“Forests are known as ecosystems that can store water in the ground so that they can supply water when it is dry. Too with the function of forests in the Upper Ciliwung Watershed. The poor management of forests and land in the upstream area had caused a significant water debit change in the Ciliwung River between its rainy and its dry seasons,” Anggi Putra Prayoga, Forest Watch Indonesia Campaigner explained.
The dualism of spatial planning in the Puncak area has influenced forest governance in the Upper Ciliwung Watershed. There are two conflicting policies in determining the function in the upstream Ciliwung watershed. First, the Presidential Regulation Number 54 of 2008 which designates the Puncak Area as a protected area, and the second, the policy issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry through the Decree of the Minister of Forestry Number 195 of 2003, which designates the Puncak Area as Forest Production, Nature Reserves, and National Parks.
The determination of Nature Reserves and National Parks fall under the President’s directive because it expected to protect natural resources. Meanwhile, the area designated as Production Forest with an area of 1,712 hectares is considered irrelevant or not following the President’s direction, because it has a production function, which does not prioritize the principle of soil and water conservation. It is illustrated by the remaining natural forest cover in Ciliwung Watershed Production Forest, which 811 hectares or around 48 percent of its total Production Forest area was no longer in the form of natural forest cover.
Anggi emphasized, “Consistency in spatial use is crucial in managing natural resources in the Puncak Area. The Minister of Environment and Forestry should follow the President’s direction in prioritizing the principle of conservation of water and soil resources. We must protect the remaining natural forest cover of the Puncak area should we want to ensure the water supply for Bogor, Depok, or even for the capital city of Jakarta are remain fulfilled. “
- For 22 years, there is no significant difference in rainfall in the Puncak area. The estimated difference in the rain is 0.17 from the average rainfall of 3,160 mm/year. In that time frame, the Puncak Region experienced 17 times of extreme weather. (P4W-IPB, 2012)
- Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) is an independent forest monitoring network consisting of individuals who are committed to realizing an open forestry data and information management process in Indonesia to ensure fair and sustainable forest resource management. This organization is based in Bogor.