Bob Purba, Presentation on Tokyo, 2007
Condition and Tendency…
• The increasing of damage forest (degradation and deforestation)
• The continueing of forest logging and illegal wood commerce
• The continueing of forest fire and forest convertion which can not be controlled
• Poverty which related to damage forest
• Loss of government benefits, environmental services and biodiversity
• The increasing of environmental problems and conflicts that caused by the rare of forest resources
• The undistinct of forest area status
• The weaken of organisational function in managing forest resources
• The weaken of protection and conservation Condition and Tendency…
INDONESIA IS EXPRIENCING THE FASTEST TROPICAL FOREST LOOSING IN THE WORLD ….
• In 1980, deforestation rate is 1 million ha / year
• The World Bank analysis, during 1985-1997, deforestation rate is 1.7 million ha / year (FWI/GFW 2001)
• After 1996, deforestation is increas, and estimated become 2 million ha / year (FWI/GFW 2001)
• During 2000-2004, deforestation increas to 2.8 million ha/year (Badan Planologi Kehutanan 2004)
Forest Cover Change…
• During 50 years (1950-2000), forest cover in indonesia has alraeady loss about 40 % (from 162 million ha to 98 million ha) (FWI/GFW, 2001)
• Till the late of 2004, from 126.8 million ha forest cover, about 59.1 million ha indicate have already degraded and need immediately rehabilitated (Dephut 2005)
Intact Forest Landscape…
• Intact Forest Landscape (IFL) is a forest unfold owning ecosystem that get minimum hit by impact of human exploitation at commerce scale and have minimum exten 50.000 ha
• From satelite imagery analysis, define that indonesia have 37 million ha of IFL, only about 30 % of total forest area (Greenpeace/FWI, 2006)
• Papua have IFL which is the biggest to be compared to other region, that is 17.9 million ha (Greenpeace/FWI, 2006)
• The existence of IFL is being threatened because some of this forest area reside in forest concession (HPH) and from other human activity
Degradation and Deforestation…
The main factors (FWI/GFW):
1. The corruption of political and economical system
2. Policy of forest management system:
• Forest Concession Rights (IUPHHK -HA) which conducting over exploitation
• Forest conversion for the development of Plantation Forest (HTI) and big scale plantation (oil palm plantation)
• Wood industrial expansion: sawnmill, plymill, pulpmill & papermill, which cause increasing of wood demand
3. Forest fire
4. Illegal Logging
• In 1993, forest concession (IUPHHK-HA) that actively operate about 575 unit, covering about 61.70 million ha
• Decline drasticly to 303 unit, covering 28.10 million ha in August 2006
• 33.60 million ha ex-forest concession which is natural forest degraded and deforestated
• The reduction of forest concession number caused by progressively forest resources damage, economical crisis and national political change
• In 1996, planting realization decline about 50 %, become 43 % in 1997 and 32 % in 1998
• Wide of Plantation Forest which planted only 2.88 million ha, from 10.2 million ha targeted, according to given permit
• About 7.32 million ha (72%) of total HTI concession (IUPHHK-HT) is unmanaged.
Oil Palm Plantation…
Source: Data from Directorate General of Plantations on BISINFOCUS 2006; H. Kartidihardjo and A. Supriono “The mpact of Sectoral Development on Natural Forest: The Case of Timber and Tree Crop Plantations in Indonesia. ” Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
• Over the last 30 years plantation development has been become the main factor causing deforestation in Indonesia (FWI&GFW, 2001).
• The land allocation for plantations increased from 105,808 Ha in 1967 to 606,780 Ha in 1986.
• According to the Directorate General of Plantations, in the last 5 years (2001-2005) the area of oil palm plantation has increased from 4.71 million hectares to 5.59 million hectares, around 288 thousand hectares per year (BISINFOCUS DATA PRATAMA. 2006
• Oil palm plantation has major implications for Indigenous Peoples in Indonesia. Oil palm estates in fact has lead to loss of livelihoods, social conflicts, and degraded environmental quality.
Land and Forest Fire…
• Land preparation to develop HTI (IUPHHK-HT) and big scale plantation (oil palm plantation) is often done by burning because it expence low price
• Lack of law enforcement to punish forest burner that caused damage of forest resources
• Not less that 9.7 million ha of forest and other area burned in 1997 -1998, with tires loss about ± US$ 10 billion (FWI/GFW, 2001)
• Land and forest fire that happened every year in Indonesia, contribute to deforestation
• The differences between suply-demand existence
• Black market that accomodating illegal wood
• Lack of law enforcement
• Illegal wood industry that still operate
• Commercial wood system which is not transparent
Illegal Logging Practice Cause:
“losing of valuable wood equal to US $ 5 billion, include national income about US $ 1.5 billion every year (not including the expense of environmental loss and expense of social loss)”
Supply & Demand of Timber…
• More than 36 million m3/year (68 %) raw material for wood industry, indicated come from illegal sources (Forest Futures Working Group , 2004)
Log Production Total 17 million m3/year
Industrial Requirement (75 %) 53 million m3/year
Difference 36 million m3/year
Illegal Wood Demand From Black Market….
• Indonesia domestic market estimated comsume illegal wood about 17 million m3 every year
• International market estimated consume illegal wood about 33 million m3 every year (WB-WWF, 2005)
• Estimated, money circulating from this illegal bisnis about US $ 1.5 billion per year (WB- WWF, 2005) and many people who enjoy the result of this kind of bisnis
Degradation and Deforestation’s Impact…
GENERATING VARIOUS NEGATIVE IMPACT ON ECOLOGY, CULTURAL & SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
• At the last five year, every year have happened floods and slide
• Year 2003, counted 236 times floods in 26 provinces and 111 times slide in 13 provinces ( KLH, 2004)
• Loss of government benefits, environmental services and biodiversity
• Decreasing quality of forest, as prop of life to 48,8 million society who live in/around forest
• Destruction of wood industry in Ind onesia
• Loss of social wisdom of local communities and Indigenous Peoples
• One of contributor of emission for greenhouse gasses (global warming) ‡ climate changes
Future Challenge and Changes ….
• Quickening penalization process to peoples known as intelectual actors and baron in illegal logging
• Balancing wood suply and demand by rationalization or downsizing wood indutry capacities
• Ascertaining wood requirement for industry or wood exporting that come from legal annual allowable cut and have passed verification to its wood legallity
• Finishing certainty of land tenurial right by area inauguration, so that can finish the conflict that happened in forest management and forest exploitation
• Conducting transformation in management context and forest exploiting, from big scale to sustainable small scale by community (community forestry/logging), through: Hutan Desa, Hutan Rakyat, Hutan Adat, Hutan Tanaman Rakyat
• The International market (specially Japan market) must be ensure that they only receive Indonesia’s timber that are produced from legal and sustainably-managed supply.
• Using ecolabel certification instrument as a tool to create sustainable forest management.
• Maintening and strengthening existence community forestry (logging) initiative, and also to push new initiative, such as Kulon Progo by local community, Sungai Utik by indigenous peoples – Dayak Iban – in West Kalimantan and Sorong Selatan by indigenous peoples
• Opening and market guarantee (international and domestic) to community wood which have got ecolabel certification
Success Story of Community Forestry (Logging)…
Kelompok Tani Hutan Rakyat di Gunung Kidul
• Covering Desa Dengok-Kecamatan Playen, Desa Girisekar-Kecamatan Parang, Desa Kedungkeris -Kecamatan Nglipar
• Owning areal that covering about 815 Ha, that have already got ecolabeling certification in PHBML -LEI scheme
• Improving environmental support, such as awaking of wellspring debit and decreasing of critical land
Kelompok Tani Hutan Rakyat di Wonogiri
• Reside in Desa Selopuro dan Sumberrejo, Kabupaten Wonogiri.
• Owning areal that covering about 812 Ha, that have already got ecolabeling certification in PHBML -LEI scheme
Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari, Konawe Selatan
• Owning strong local organization with number of member counted about 8543 KK (families)
• Manage property forest area covering about 375 ha and have got ecolabel certification in FSC scheme
• Main forest product is teak wood
• The increasing of wood price from Rp. 500.000/m3 (before sertification) to Rp. 5.300.000/m3 (after sertification) and give contribution to increase community revenue
• Reducing illegal logging, because with initiative that KHJL have created, already made a new employment field for the community
• Able to create cooperation with industry that buy certified wood, which KHJL act as wood raw material producers
The Contributor of Emision (Stern, 200 6)….
• The main contributor of emission in this recent century is coming from the combustion of fossil fuel, including oil, gasses, and coal for motor vehicles, power energy and operational of industries (specifically from Annex I countries), is approximated 65% of total emission in the world
• Agriculture activity (14%), deforestation (18%), domestic activity and waste dismissal (3%), also contributed in releasing heater gasses, carbon and methan to the air.
• In Indonesia, the biggest contributor of emission for greenhouse gasses is forest fire and deforestation.
COP 13 on Climate Changes
Civil Society will do: …..”FOR CLIMATE JUSTICE”…….
• Raise and build public awareness on impacts of climate change in Indonesia;
• Strengthen solidarity amongst CSOs to respond climate change politics at the national, regional, and international level;
• Facilitate voices of the vulnerable communities in COP 13 of UNFCCC event in Bali
• Provide key counter arguments to the government regarding its political position in UNFCCC
• To emphasize/push industrial countries (Annex 1) to do not remove responsibility to developing countries. Some of industrial count ries responsibility: reducing their carbon emisson, to transfer friendly technology of environment to developing countries (CDM mechanism)
• To support solution from Indonesia to reduce of carbon emision, example REDD initiative (reducing emision from deforestation and degradation)